When 1,000 women get one additional year of schooling, on average one to two fewer women from that group will die in childbirth. This is because multifactor productivity formulas incorporate only a subset of the inputs used in production. If a few employers tried to pay their workers less than what those workers produced, then those workers would receive offers of higher wages from other profit-seeking employers. Figure 1 shows that the average amount produced by a U.S. worker in an hour averaged over $100 in 2011, more than twice the amount an average worker produced per hour in 1966. For instance, if we want to calculate the productivity of one sales personnel, his labor hours will replace input in the formula whereas the amount of sales would be his output. It is hard to infer anything about long-term productivity trends during the later part of the 2000s, because the steep recession of 2008–2009, with its sharp but not completely synchronized declines in output and employment, complicates any interpretation. Productivity is a measure of the relationship between outputs (total product) and inputs i.e. Unlike multifactor productivity which uses a subset of the inputs, Total Factor Productivity computations incorporate all inputs used in the production process. Over the long term, the only way that GDP per capita can grow continually is if the productivity of the average worker rises. Human Capital Deepening in the U.S. The value of the physical capital, measured by plant and equipment, used by the average worker in the U.S. economy has risen over the decades. Their children are more likely to be better nourished and to receive basic health care like immunizations. Since the late 1950s, economists have conducted growth accounting studies to determine the extent to which physical and human capital deepening and technology have contributed to growth. The pessimists, on the other hand, argue that even five or ten years of stronger productivity growth does not prove that higher productivity will last for the long term. Europe also lost an overwhelming amount of human capital in the form of millions of men, women, and children who died during the war. Figure 2. Thus, the key dimension for deepening human capital in the U.S. economy focuses more on additional education and training than on a higher average level of work experience. Online resources to advance your career and business. An example of such productivity formula is the ratio of units produced to materials, labor and capital. This question allow you to get as much practice as you need, as you can click the link at the top of the question (“Try another version of this question”) to get a new version of the question.
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